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World Down Syndrome Day 2017

World Down Syndrome Day (WDSD), observed on 21 March every year, is a global awareness day which has been officially observed by the United Nations since 2012.

WHAT IS DOWN SYNDROME?

Down syndrome is a genetic condition when an individual has a full or partial extra copy of chromosome 21. It causes delays in physical and intellectual development It alters the course of development and causes the characteristics associated with Down syndrome and is the most frequently occurring chromosomal disorder.

Down Syndrome is named after a doctor who first described the disease Dr. John Langdon Down.

Down syndrome is not related to race, nationality, religion or socioeconomic status. The most important fact to know about individuals with Down syndrome is that they are more like others than they are different.

There are three types of Down syndrome:

  • Trisomy 21 (nondisjunction) accounts for 95% of cases
  • Translocation accounts for about 4%
  • Mosaicism accounts for about 1%

People with Down syndrome have an increased risk for certain medical conditions like heart defects, respiratory and hearing problems, Alzheimer’s disease, childhood leukaemia and many more

Psychology Programs @ Texila

Approximately one in every 700 babies in the United States is born with Down syndrome – about 6,000 each year. There are more than 400,000 people living with Down syndrome.

In 1983, the average life expectancy of a person with Down syndrome was a mere 25-years-old. Today, it’s 60.

WHY MARCH 21?

The date for World Down Syndrome Day, being the 21st day of the 3rd month, signifies the triplication of the 21st Chromosome which causes Down Syndrome.

A motivating home environment, good healthcare and positive support from family, friends and the community enable people with Down syndrome to lead fulfilling and productive lives.

Study Psychology Programs and be a Part of Transformation

Factors before considering MBBS admission in Abroad

According to Supreme Court of India, the state government has to fill 85% of their Medical Seat through NEET. It is expected that large number of students will choose Mbbs admission in Abroad. The students going for abroad to study medicine increased by 10 to 15 %.

There are several factors to keep in perspective while choosing the University Abroad for Medical Studies.

MCI Clearance

The students who pursue medicine in abroad must complete their screening test conduct by Medical Council of India (MCI) before they start Medical practicing in India.

An article in Times of India says

Doctors with foreign degrees flunk test in IndiaNumber of students to choose colleges in countries like Russia, China and Ukraine, where admission is easier and courses cheaper.

However, statistics show students with medical degrees from these countries are finding it increasingly difficult to pass the screening test that allows them to practice in India.

Only less than 5% of students from these countries clear their local medical council exams  and the rest 95% of students and their future will be a big “?”.

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English Speaking Country

Exposure in terms of clinical practice will be a biggest challenge as most of these countries have less than 8% of English speaking population – interaction with the patients will be really challenging task which plays a critical role in exposure while they study.

How to select a Medical university in Abroad?

  • A university Registered in the local country of presence
  • A university with good infrastructure and lab facilities
  • A university with highest level of reputation and student satisfaction
  • A university with in-house hospital facility or at least tie-up with good hospital for clinical rotation
  • A university which has history of students clearing medical council of the country when the students graduate and head back home
  • A university which has good hostel facilities and food cuisine of various countries
  • A safe and secured environment for peaceful learning
  • A country with good chill-out places for weekend outing from routine studies

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Why Higher Education Values International Schools?


In nearly all aspects of life, we want our time and money spent well. Same is true for those in pursuit of higher education. Today’s students attend college for a variety of reasons, and whether enrolled in a degree/certificate program or personal enrichment course, everyone wants their money’s worth. But how exactly is “value” assessed? Students get the best bang for their dollar when a quality education is offered at an affordable price.

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Evoking a term like value in higher education conversations often leads people to think about salary — focusing on the economic and workforce benefits of a college degree. Certainly, that’s a critical and practical part of the equation. But, value should also focus on outcomes that prepare students for lifelong learning and long-term professional success and contributions to the social good.

The number of students attending international schools worldwide is predicted to increase from 3.82 million enrolments in 2015 to 8.26 million by 2025. However, there is a rapidly increasing demand from different countries for an English-medium education.

Texila American University (TAU) Group is a leading education pioneer in the areas of Health Sciences. Students from over 40 nationalities are enrolled in the campus in Guyana for its different programs. Programs offered include – Doctor of Medicine (MD), Bachelor of Science & Doctor of Medicine (BSMD) and Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN).

Students from over 60 Nationalities are enrolled in our distance programs in various levels. Programs are offered in the following schools: School of Nursing, Management, Information Technology, Public Health, and Education& Many more.

Top 10 Mistakes Made in Clinical Rotations


By Kendra Campbell, MD and other Medscape Contributors

Last week, I watched a med student argue for 20 minutes with a patient about whether or not they were ambulating enough. His actions inspired me to make a top 10 list of mistakes that I’ve seen students make during their clinical rotations:

1. Arguing with a patient:
This is an exercise in futility, and is very unprofessional.
“One of your role’s as a physician is to invoke a shared decision making process with your patients who have decision making capacity.”

2. Reporting a physical finding without actually observing it:
I’ve even seen a student get in trouble for documenting a physical finding on a patient who had been discharged already.

3. Berating (aka “pimping”) your resident or attending:
Med school is similar to the military when it comes to respecting your place in the chain of command. Attendings “pimp” residents and med students. Residents berate med students. Thou shalt not berate up the chain. That said, the institutionalized nature of “pimping” does not absolve the word of its offensive and unethical practice. Eradicate it from your vocabulary and practice.

Medical-Students

“Most of the time it is to show power, how smart they are and embarrass those lower in the “Hierarchy”. If  residents and attendings really want to teach, than have a real discussion of the issues.  Yes, ask questions but don’t berate someone if they don’t know the answer. Good attendings approach it like that, and if a student or resident doesn’t know the answer, they are told to look it up.

A few times, when I was a student, a hotshot resident would try to “pimp” me and they had the wrong answer and tried to correct me. I looked up a relevant article and proved my position. There is nothing wrong with that, as long as it is done respectfully.

Medicine is a life long learning experience. Everyone can learn something new including residents and attendings. Don’t automatically discount someone’s opinion because they are lower on the hospital chain. A student might have a Ph.D. or master’s in some field and truly knows more about a subject than the resident or attending.”

4. Disrespecting the nurses:
Seriously, this is a huge no-no. If you want to make your life miserable, make the nurses hate you. If you want to enjoy your time at the hospital, befriend every nurse you meet.

5. Dressing inappropriately:
Dressing appropriately is important, and applies to men as well as women. For example, no sandals, no jeans, no T-shirts (unless they’re under scrubs), a mohawk wouldn’t go over well, nor would wearing 4-inch stiletto heels, or a need to exhibit one’s cleavage.  There’s a time and a place for everything, and the hospital is not a place to dress provocatively.

“Include personal hygiene. Use your dental floss and brush your teeth. Patients do not deserve a doctor with bad breath. Poor personal hygiene raises doubts in the minds of all about whether you are scrupulous about everything else.”

6. Documenting an important positive finding without alerting your resident or attending:
If you discover that a patient has rebound tenderness, or a temperature of 103.7, don’t write this in a note and walk away. You must always alert your higher-ups to significant findings, or else you will find yourself getting chewed out for a good while.

7. Showing up late:
This is a particular pet peeve of mine, and one that some students seem to think is insignificant. People notice when you’re late. It’s unprofessional and disrespectful to the rest of the group. Traffic is not an excuse. Leave your residence early enough to get to the hospital with plenty of time to spare.

8. Performing a procedure without having been authorized to do so:
If the resident walks in on you placing a central line on a patient without their authorization, you will find yourself in deep trouble with the doctor, hospital, and potentially a courtroom.

9. Forgetting you are in a hospital:
This is something that is easier said than done. We spend so many hours in the hospital that it’s easy to forget that we are surrounded by very ill, helpless, and frightened people. It’s not a high school football game; it’s a hospital.  Patient’s lives are in the hands of the healthcare workers surrounding them. We are each one of the healthcare workers.

10. Being a slacker:
We all have seen students who try to get by with the bare minimum in everything they do. If you want to throw away a ridiculous amount of money, not learn anything, and end up being a crappy doctor, then by all means slack off during your clinical years. If you want to learn a lot and become an incredible doctor, then put in the time and effort.

Source: www.einstein.yu.edu

Medical Ethics in Bachelor Degree of Medicine

medical ethics

In today’s world which is filled with several institutional boards and hospital ethics committees, the greatest risk faced by the medical professionals is the lack of moral theories and principles in the practice of medicine. The medical science has altered in such a way that it showcases the importance of ethical controversies. Medical ethics is normally concerned with the moral issues emerging from the patient welfare.

Keeping in mind the importance of ethics in medicine, the Association of Health Universities in India has decided to forward a proposal to the Medical Council of India (MCI) regarding the inculcation of professionalism and ethics in the MBBS course which would enhance the medical practitioners in pursuing the relevant degree. It is to be noted that though ethics was a part of medical education previously, no examinations were conducted as a part of assessments.

The third conclave of Vice-chancellors of Health Universities of India, hosted by the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences was held recently with regard to the proposal. It had turned out to be a highly debated session wherein Dr Venkatesh D, the Director of MS Ramaiah Medical College stated “We had done a survey on students some years ago. We realized they come to medical college with high ideals. But as years pass, their principles erode and towards the end, many are ready to compromise on their values” (source: http://www.edu-leaders.com/edu/news/39123/medical-ethics-mbbs?utm_source=newsletter-core&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=20140430).

Though the ethics was taught in the beginning, there were no assessments to validate them. Also most of the universities which taught ethics could not impart them into real-terms. Hence it is mandatory to ensure that regular examinations will be conducted as a part of assessment for the new subject. A proper knowledge in ethics would help a medical practitioner to enhance the healthcare service rendered to the society.

Importance of Ethics

Developments in science and technology in this century has led to several advances of medicine and healthcare that has benefitted millions of lives. Ethics refers to the standardized codes and principles which are very important for moulding the medical practitioners. A few facts that make the ethics more important are listed below:
• Standardization & Validation of medical practice
• Recruiting a highly qualified medical personnel
• Builds public support for medical care
• Delivering the best medical service to the society
• Good communication between medical practitioners with patients

Since its inception, Texila American University, one of the fastest growing Caribbean medical school with clinical rotations in USA has been rendering medical programs with medical ethics as one of its key subjects, in the curriculum in Doctor of Medicine Program so that the medical practitioners will be aware trained in medical ethics.

Harvard Yoga Scientists Find Proof of Meditation Benefit

Scientists are getting close to proving that yoga and meditation can ward off stress and disease

yogaLondon: Scientists are getting close to proving what yogis have held to be true for centuries—yoga and meditation can ward off stress and disease.

John Denninger, a psychiatrist at Harvard Medical School, is leading a five-year study on how the ancient practices affect genes and brain activity in the chronically stressed. His latest work follows a study he and others published earlier this year showing how so-called mind-body techniques can switch on and off some genes linked to stress and immune function.

While hundreds of studies have been conducted on the mental health benefits of yoga and meditation, they have tended to rely on blunt tools like participant questionnaires, as well as heart rate and blood pressure monitoring. Only recently have neuro-imaging and genomics technology used in Denninger’s latest studies allowed scientists to measure physiological changes in greater detail.

“There is a true biological effect,” said Denninger, director of research at the Benson-Henry Institute for Mind Body Medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital, one of Harvard Medical School’s teaching hospitals. “The kinds of things that happen when you meditate do have effects throughout the body, not just in the brain.”

The government-funded study may persuade more doctors to try an alternative route for tackling the source of a myriad of modern ailments. Stress-induced conditions can include everything from hypertension and infertility to depression and even the aging process. They account for 60-90% of doctor’s visits in the US, according to the Benson-Henry Institute. The World Health Organization estimates stress costs US companies at least $300 billion a year through absenteeism, turn-over and low productivity.

Seinfeld, Murdoch

The science is advancing alongside a budding mindfulness movement, which includes meditation devotees such as Bill George, board member of Goldman Sachs Group and Exxon Mobil Corp., and comedian Jerry Seinfeld. News Corp. chairman Rupert Murdoch recently revealed on Twitter that he is giving meditation a try.

As a psychiatrist specializing in depression, Denninger said he was attracted to mind-body medicine, pioneered in the late 1960s by Harvard professor Herbert Benson, as a possible way to prevent the onset of depression through stress reduction. While treatment with pharmaceuticals is still essential, he sees yoga and meditation as useful additions to his medical arsenal.

Exchange programme
It’s an interest that dates back to an exchange programme he attended in China the summer before entering Harvard as an undergraduate student. At Hangzhou University, he trained with a tai chi master every morning for three weeks.

“By the end of my time there, I had gotten through my thick teenage skull that there was something very important about the breath and about inhabiting the present moment, he said. I’ve carried that with me since then.”

His current study, to conclude in 2015 with about $3.3 million in funding from the National Institutes of Health, tracks 210 healthy subjects with high levels of reported chronic stress for six months. They are divided in three groups.

One group with 70 participants perform a form of yoga known as Kundalini, another 70 meditate and the rest listen to stress education audiobooks, all for 20 minutes a day at home. Kundalini is a form of yoga that incorporates meditation, breathing exercises and the singing of mantras in addition to postures. Denninger said it was chosen for the study because of its strong meditation component.

Participants come into the lab for weekly instruction for two months, followed by three sessions where they answer questionnaires, give blood samples used for genomic analysis and undergo neuro-imaging tests.

‘Immortality enzyme’

Unlike earlier studies, this one is the first to focus on participants with high levels of stress. The study published in May in the medical journal PloS One showed that one session of relaxation-response practice was enough to enhance the expression of genes involved in energy metabolism and insulin secretion and reduce expression of genes linked to inflammatory response and stress. There was an effect even among novices who had never practiced before.

Harvard isn’t the only place where scientists have started examining the biology behind yoga.
In a study published last year, scientists at the University of California at Los Angeles and Nobel Prize winner Elizabeth Blackburn found that 12 minutes of daily yoga meditation for eight weeks increased telomerase activity by 43%, suggesting an improvement in stress-induced aging. Blackburn of the University of California, San Francisco, shared the Nobel medicine prize in 2009 with Carol Greider and Jack Szostak for research on the telomerase immortality enzyme, which slows the cellular aging process.

Build resilience

Not all patients will be able to stick to a daily regimen of exercise and relaxation. Nor should they have to, according to Denninger and others. Simply knowing breath-management techniques and having a better understanding of stress can help build resilience.

“A certain amount of stress can be helpful,” said Sophia Dunn, a clinical psychotherapist who trained at King’s College London. “Yoga and meditation are tools for enabling us to swim in difficult waters.” Bloomberg

Source: www.livemint.com

‘Holy Grail’ of Stem Cell Research Discovered

Scientists have developed sugar-coated scaffolding to improve  stem cell technology to cure some of the world’s incurable diseases and conditions.

Stem cells have the distinctive ability to show into any form of human cell, gap up all styles of therapeutic potentialities for diseases from Alzheimer’s disease to polygenic disorder.

But a way to encourage stem cells to show into the actual form of cell needed to treat a selected unwellness is that the drawback that scientists face currently.

Now researchers at the University of Manchester’s faculty of Materials and college of Life Sciences have developed a web-like scaffold, coated with long-sugar molecules, that enhances stem-cell cultures to try to to simply this.

The scaffold is created by a method called ‘electrospinning’, making a mesh of fibres that mimic structures that occur naturally inside the body.

The team’s results area unit notably promising, because the sugar moleculesare conferred on the surface of the fibres, retentive structural patterns necessary in their perform. The sugars also are ‘read’ by the stem cells mature on the surface, stimulating and enhancing the formation of somatic cell cell sorts.

“These meshes are changed with long, linear sugar molecules, that we’ve got antecedently shown play a basic role in regulation the behaviour of stem cells. By combining the sugar molecules with the fibre internet, we tend to hoped to use each organic chemistry and structural signals to guide the behaviour of stem cells, in an exceedingly similar thanks to that used naturally by the body. this is often the Holy Grail of analysis into developing new medical specialty victimization somatic cell technology,” same lead author Dr Catherine Merry, from Manchester’s somatic cell Glycobiology cluster.

The cluster anticipate that the mix of the sugar molecules with the fibre internet can aid each the expansion of somatic cells and also the formation of various cell sorts from the stem cell population.

Possible applications include tissue engineering, where the meshes could support cells differentiating to form bone, liver or blood vessels.

The meshes even have potential therapeutic implications within the treatment of diseases like multiple nonmalignant tumour (MO), a rare sickness making bony spurs or lumps caused by abnormal production of those sugar molecules.

Co-author academic Tony Day, from Manchester’s Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell-Matrix analysis, said: “This cross-faculty collaboration provides exciting new potentialities for a way we would harness the adhesive interactions of animate thing matrix to govern vegetative cell behaviour and realise their full therapeutic potential.”

The team’s results were given within the Journal of Biological Chemistry. (ANI)

Source:

http://in.news.yahoo.com/holy-grail-stem-cell-research-discovered-045745224.html

http://www.medindia.net/news/scientists-discover-holy-grail-of-stem-cell-research-114969-1.htm

FIRST ARTIFICIAL HEART

Your heart is the motor inside your body that continues the lot running. Fundamentally, the heart is a muscular pump that upholds oxygen and blood dissemination by way of your lungs and form. In a day, your heart pumps around 2,000 gallons of blood. Like any motor, if the heart is not well enjoyed consideration of it can reprieve down and pump less productively, a condition called heart disappointment.

Up to this point, the sole choice for numerous severe heart flop patients has been heart transplants. Notwithstanding, there are just marginally more than 2,000 heart transplants performed in the United States every twelve-months, indicating that several many individuals burn out sitting tight for a benefactor heart. On July 2, 2001, heart disappointment patients were given new trust as surgeons at Jewish Hospital in Louisville, Kentucky, performed the first manufactured heart transplant in practically two decades. The Abio Cor Implantable Replacement Heart is the first totally independent artificial heart and is wanted to anyhow twofold the future of heart patients.

In this article, you will get an in-profundity check out how this new artificial heart works, how its embedded into a patient’s midsection and who may be a petitioner for getting one of the aforementioned mechanical hearts. We will likewise stand up in comparison the AbioCor heart to the manufactured hearts that have missed the mark in the past.

The first AbioCor device has now been implanted in a patient. The patient,a man dying of heart failure, received the first self-contained, implantable artificial heart.

The new artificial heart, the AbioCor, is manufactured by Abiomed, Inc., based in Danvers, MA. The company has now received permission from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to proceed with human investigation of the AbioCor. While artificial hearts have been implanted in humans before, previous artificial hearts were primitive compared to the AbioCor. The older mechanical hearts required the patient to be attached to a large console (via tubes and electrical power lines extending through the patient’s skin,)
and essentially required that the patient be bedridden.

The “best case” for using these previous artificial hearts was as a means of keeping patients alive until a heart transplant was available.

With the AbioCor, on the other hand, the ultimate goal is to develop a more-or-less permanent replacement for the heart. The device is completely self-contained within the body, and there are no tubes or lines protruding through the skin. Patients will not be tied to a console, and should be able to carry out routine ambulatory functions. Power is supplied to AbioCor by an external battery pack worn on the belt.

A coil attached to the battery pack sends power through the skin to an implanted coil, which then transmits the energy to the AbioCor. (The AbioCor also contains an internal, continually charging short-term battery, that can keep the device pumping for up to 30 minutes without the external battery pack.) Similar to a pacemaker, the AbioCor contains an activity sensor that can tell when the patient is active, and can automatically increase the rate of pumping during exertion.

The AbioCor weighs about 3 pounds, and the external battery pack weighs 4 pounds.

Read more:

http://science.howstuffworks.com/innovation/everyday-innovations/artificial-heart.htm

http://www.abiomed.com/products/heart-replacement/

https://www.facebook.com/BestMedicalFacts

http://heartdisease.about.com/cs/heartfailure/a/abiocor.htm

 

 

NANOROBOTS – THE FUTURE OF MEDICINE

Nanorobots are nanodevices that will be used for the purpose of maintaining and human body against pathogens. They will have a diameter of about 0.5 to 3 microns. The powering of the nanorobots can be done by metabolizing local glucose and oxygen for energy. Communication with the device can be achieved by broadcast-type acoustic signaling.

A navigational network may be installed in the body, with station keeping navigational elements providing high positional accuracy to all passing nanorobots that interrogate them, wanting to know their location.

This will enable the physician to keep track of the various devices in the body.

Used for

Elimination of bacterial infection

Nanorobots would function similarly to the white blood cells in our bodies, but they are designed to be much faster at destroying bacteria. This type of nanorobots should be able to eliminate bacterial infections in a patient within minutes, as opposed to the weeks required for antibiotics to take effect.

Surgery for cellular level (removing individual diseased cells)

Nanorobots has multiple functions of imaging, manipulation, characterizing mechanical properties, and tracking. In addition, the technique of tip functionalization allows the nano robot the ability for precisely delivering a drug locally. Therefore, the nano robot can be used for conducting complicated nano surgery on living samples, such as cells and bacteria.

Lengthening of human lifespan

Significant lengthening of the human lifespan by repairing cellular level conditions that cause the body to age

For curing skin diseases using a cream containing Nanorobots

To cure skin diseases, a cream containing nanorobots may be used. It could remove the right amount of dead skin, remove excess oils, add missing oils, apply the right amounts of natural moisturizing compounds, and even achieve the elusive goal of ‘deep pore cleaning’ by actually reaching down into pores and cleaning them out. The cream could be a smart material with smooth-on, peel-off convenience.

For dental health

A mouthwash full of smart nanomachines could identify and destroy pathogenic bacteria while allowing the harmless flora of the mouth to flourish in a healthy ecosystem. Further, the devices would identify particles of food, plaque, or tartar, and lift them from teeth to be rinsed away. Being suspended in liquid and able to swim about, devices would be able to reach surfaces beyond reach of toothbrush bristles or the fibres of floss. As short-lifetime medical nanodevices, they could be built to last only a few minutes in the body before falling apart into materials of the sort found in foods (such as fibre).

Immune Enhancer       

Medical nanodevices could augment the immune system by finding and disabling unwanted bacteria and viruses. When an invader is identified, it can be punctured, letting its contents spill out and ending its effectiveness. If the contents were known to be hazardous by themselves, then the immune machine could hold on to it long enough to dismantle it more completely.

Cures heart Problems very easily

Devices working in the bloodstream could nibble away at arteriosclerotic deposits, widening the affected blood vessels. Cell herding devices could restore artery walls and artery linings to health, by ensuring that the right cells and supporting structures are in the right places. This would prevent most heart attacks.

DNA Repair

Nanorobots would be able to repair damaged DNA and allow our cells to function correctly. These little guys could be built to perform surgical procedures more precisely. By working at the cellular level, such nanorobots could prevent much of the damage caused by the comparatively clumsy scalpel.

Read more:

http://www.understandingnano.com/nanomedicine.html

http://www.ewh.ieee.org/r10/bombay/news3/page4.html

http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/nanorobots-being-developed-to-repair-cells.html